On-going Study: Urban Community Resilience Assessment in Kochi for World Resources Institute, IndiaCentre for Socio-economic & Environmental Studies (CSES), is undertaking a study on ‘Urban Community Resilience Assessment in Kochi’ for the World Resources Institute, India. Primary objective of the study is to assess individuals’ capacities to respond to climate risks and extreme events and to evaluate community resilience potential at the neighbourhood scale. The study will comprise of household survey and in-depth field work in selected localities within Kochi Municipal Corporation, which are prone to climate change risks.
People-Centric Service Delivery in Local Self Government Institutions
CSES supported the Fourth Administrative Reforms Commission in the preparation of the Report on “People-Centric Service Delivery in Local Self Government Institutions”, the Tenth Study Report of the Commission. The project examined how efficient and people-centric the LSGIs, i.e. the Grama Panchayats, Municipalities and Municipal Corporations, are in providing services to the citizens. The study covered services from the LSGI office as well as public amenities and overall local governance. The study also looked into the service delivery from a selected set of Transferred Institutions managed by LSGIs, namely, Public health care facilities, Anganwadis, Krishi Bhavan, Matsya bhavan, Veterinary institutions and Dairy extension and Support Units. The report was released in January 2021 and puts forward recommendations of the Commission to make the services of the LSGIs and the transferred institutions, more people-centric.
Click here to read the full report
GIZ – Land TenureCentre for Socio-economic & Environmental Studies (CSES), jointly with Habitat for Humanity, India has undertaken a study “Assessment of Urban Housing Scenario in Kerala: With focus on Households without Formal Land Rights” which was supported by GIZ New Delhi. The study conducted in 2019 aimed to understand the urbanisation and housing scenario in Kerala by reviewing existing policies, programs and their outreach and policy options to meet the housing demand of urban poor, particularly those without formal land rights. As part of the study, exploratory field work was also conducted in Kochi to understand land tenure continuum. The Report concludes by proposing a roadmap to pilot a public-private partnership model intervention, to provide houses to the economically weaker sections who are unable to access support from existing government housing schemes.
Study on Grants in Aid Policies and Practices towards Secondary Education in KeralaThe study sponsored by the National Institute for Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA), New Delhi was done in 2005.
Evaluation of the Schemes under the Special Component Plan (SCP)The study was conducted in 2003 for the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, Government of India. This study covered the SCP in Ernakulam District of Kerala.
Diagnostic Study of Handloom Industry- A Study of Two Clusters in KeralaThe study sponsored by the Development Commissioner (Handlooms), Ministry of Textiles, Government of India, was done in 2007. The study covered two handloom clusters in Malabar region.
Census Survey of Coir Units and Sample Survey of Coir WorkersThis project was sponsored by the Directorate of Coir Development, Government of Kerala. The study involved a census of coir units in the state as well as a sample survey of coir workers. The survey among the coir units covered aspects such as occupational status of workers, extent of mechanization in spinning and weaving, capacity utilisation, details about machinery and accessories, number of ratts and looms etc. The information was collected from the coir units in the public sector, cooperative sector and private sector including household units engaged in different activities such as spinning, weaving, retting, de-fibering and production of mats and mattings. The survey among coir workers collected the socio-economic and demographic profile of the workers. It also examined the health problems faced by the workers. This project involved data collection from about 75000 households, 1000 industrial units and about 13000 coir workers distributed all over Kerala.
Sustainability Evaluation of Water Supply SchemesThe Centre was chosen for the conduct of Sustainability Evaluation Surveys of Water Supply Schemes under the Jalanidhi Project by the Kerala Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Agency (Jalanidhi), Government of Kerala. The Phase I exercise evaluated 303 drinking water schemes spread in 11 districts in Kerala and was conducted in 2015. The Phase II exercise was conducted in 62 Grama Panchayats spread in all the districts except Kollam, Alappuzha and Ernakulam and was done in 2017. Click here to download
Status of Pre-primary Education in KeralaThe study was conducted for District Primary Education Programme (DPEP), Government of Kerala. This pioneering study conducted in 2001, involved survey of over 3000 pre-primary education centres covering all districts of Kerala. The objectives of the study inter alia were: to make an estimate of the number of pre-schools in Kerala, to make an estimate of the coverage of pre-school system in Kerala., to assess the infrastructure facilities available in the pre-primary education centres and to suggest policy measures for universalisation of pre-primary education in the State. The study covered Anganwadis run under ICDS, government pre-primary schools and private pre-primary schools.
An Evaluation of Alternative Schooling System under DPEP in KeralaThe study was sponsored by the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) of Government of Kerala. The study, done in 2004, was part of a larger study on the evaluation of alternative schooling system in India conducted in six states. The Central Institute of Education, Delhi University was the nodal agency for the study. Alternative schooling system was initiated as part of DPEP’s efforts to provide education to drop outs and unenrolled children, mostly from the families of the tribal people and the fisherfolk. The study covered two districts of Kerala viz., Wayanad in North Kerala and Thiruvananthapuram in the South. The methods adopted for the evaluation study included: analysis of documents and data on the programme and process documentation, in-depth Interviews with officials, NGOs, parents and other stakeholders, survey of schools, focus group discussions and classroom observation.
Study on the Status of Tribal Education in KeralaThe study was sponsored by Action Aid, India. The study, done in 2007, aimed at understanding the status of education of children belonging to scheduled tribes in Kerala. It examined the policies, laws and initiatives of the government at all levels for facilitating the education of tribal children. The study also examined the spending on education of the tribal children at the state and the local level.
Child Budget Analysis of Local Governments in KeralaThe study sponsored by UNICEF was done in 2015, is one of the pioneering studies as Child Budget Analysis (CBA) is a recent introduction to fiscal planning in India. The study covered five Local governments; three Grama Panchayats and two Municipalities of Northern Kerala. The study assessed the nature and extent of attention provided by local government to children, by looking at Annual Plans and spending on children. It was supplemented by case studies of how financing of some innovative projects for children were undertaken. It has also taken up child deprivation assessment in order to see how and where actual cases of deprivation do not fit with local government plan for children.
Economic Impact of ‘Access To Livelihoods’ Programme For People With DisabilitiesThe study was conducted for Leonard Cheshire Disability, South Asia, in 2016. The Access to Livelihoods (A2L) Programme of Leonard Cheshire Disability (LCD) aims to improve livelihood of people with disabilities (PWD) through its interventions. It is implemented by LCD through Livelihoods Resource Centres (LRCs) run by partner organisations that are envisaged as a “one-stop-shop providing training, career guidance and opening links between employees and employers to support persons with disabilities into the world of work”. This study on the economic impact assessment of the Programme in India would be useful for policy makers and other key stakeholders interested in economic empowerment of persons with disabilities especially in the context of limited research conducted in this area in India.
Baseline socio-economic study for climate change adaptation and mitigation in Kavaratti island-LakshadweepThe study conducted in 2016 was sponsored by CSIR-National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources.
Concurrent Evaluation of the National Rural Health Mission in the Union Territory of LakshadweepThis evaluation study was conducted in 2009 for the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. CSES was selected to undertake the study through a competitive national bidding procedure. The study involved survey of households, health institutions and other stakeholders. It also involved in-depth discussions with senior staff of the National Rural Health Mission. Ten different types of questionnaires for canvassing information and opinions from different stakeholders were made use of for the study.
Towards a Methodology for Developing an Industrial Plan for a Grama Panchayat -A Case Study of Chottanikkara, a Grama Panchayat in Ernakulam District sponsored by the KRPLLDThe specific objectives of this exploratory study were: 1) To critically examine the present industrial planning process in the local bodies 2) To identify the constraints and problems in the present industrial planning and 3) To suggest a methodology or guidelines for making industrial plans at the local level
Evaluation of the Capability Building of the Research Community under Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development (KRPLLD)The study was sponsored by KRPLLD which in turn was sponsored by the Directorate-General for International Co-operation (DGIS), Netherlands. The study evaluated the Programme’s capacity building process and its effects on the research community of Kerala.
Study Post Retirement Employment Activities in an Urban Agglomeration: A Study of Ernakulam District sponsored by KRPLLDThe broad objective of the study was to observe the pattern of employment activities of the retired people and to identify the determinants of such activities.
Study on the Consumption Habits in Thrissur District with a View to Identifying Products Suitable for Micro Enterprises sponsored by KRPLLDThe study identified products that can be produced by micro-enterprises run by Self Help Groups.
Study on Drop out of Students from Arts and Science Colleges in Kerala – A Pilot Study sponsored by KRPLLDThe study assessed the magnitude of the drop out phenomenon and ascertained its causes. The pattern of drop outs was examined according to disciplines, level of education (Under graduate/post-graduate) caste (SC/ST and others) and gender. This study was published as a Discussion paper of KRPLLD.
Study on the Private Cost of Medical and Para-medical Education in KeralaThe study conducted in 2004 was sponsored by Kerala Research Programme on Local Level Development (KRPLLD), funded by the Netherlands Government through its Directorate-General for International Co-operation. The study attempted to estimate the private costs of medical and paramedical education incurred by the students and their families and to examine the socio-economic background of students with a view to finding out whether these factors act as barriers to entry into these courses. The courses covered were MBBS, BDS, BSc Nursing and B.Pharm. The report was published in the volume on Higher Education in Kerala, P.R.Gopinathan Nair and K.N.Nair (eds.), Dannish Books, New Delhi. The report is also available as a discussion paper of the KRPLLD/CDS Click here to download the full report
Fiscal Decentralisation in Kerala was sponsored by SDC-CapdecKThe study was to give support to Kerala Grama Panchayat Association in preparing a memorandum to submit before Third Kerala State Finance Commission.
Study on Educational Scenario and Change Initiatives in KeralaThe study done in 2004 was sponsored by CARE India, New Delhi. This study documents the various initiatives undertaken in the area of primary education in Kerala during the last decade. The origin, course taken, institutions and stakeholders involved and the possible long-standing effects brought about by these initiatives are discussed. The study was prepared as base paper on Kerala’s education scenario and presented at a Seminar on Change Initiatives in Education, organized by IAMR and CARE at New Delhi. Another base paper was also prepared and presented at the seminar, on the Dynamics of Change in Kerala’s Education System, which was sponsored by IAMR, New Delhi. The study attempts to situate the changes in the educational sector of Kerala in the broad context of the dynamics of its economy, society and polity. It deals with the political and social forces, which have been impacting upon the State’s educational system. The paper was also published as a CSES working paper available at link: CSES W.P.No.12. 2005
Study on Emerging Issues in Local Self Governance in KeralaThe study sponsored by SDC-CapDeck was conducted in 2003. The study analysed the processes and trends in local self-government. It also identified and prioritised the most relevant issues to be addressed to promote the empowerment of Panchayats.
Impact Evaluation of the Kerala Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project (Jalanidhi-I)This project was funded by the World Bank. The World Bank selected the Joint Venture of CSES and ICSD from among competitive bids submitted by international and national consulting organizations. Under this project, comprehensive social and technical audits were carried out for rural water schemes in Kerala. The audits assessed the performance of rural water supply and sanitation interventions by various providers including Kerala Water Authority (KWA) and Kerala Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (KRWSA). The roles played by local self-governments was also assessed. The study was done in 2013.
District Level Household Survey on Reproductive and Child Health ProjectCSES was the regional agency for the District Level Household Survey on Reproductive and Child Health Project in Kerala and Lakshadweep. The Survey was sponsored by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and had the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai as the nodal agency. Three rounds of DLHS was conducted by CSES (The survey was conducted in Mahe District of Pondicherry in 2 rounds). The survey was an extensive exercise which involved the administration of multiple research instruments across various categories of respondents and institutions across the state. The team comprised of nearly 120 investigators and around 20 supervisors, around 60 mappers/listers and 20 data entry operators. The first round of the DLHS was conducted by CSES in Kerala, U.T of Lakshadweep and the Mahe District of Pondicherry in 1998 and 1999, in two phases. The survey covered around 1000 households in each district and all eligible women (15-44 years) were interviewed; totaling 14396 households in Kerala and 1095 households in Lakshadweep. In this round, two questionnaires were administered, one for the household and one for eligible women. The focus of the survey was on the coverage of Ante Natal Care (ANC) and immunization services, the extent of safe deliveries, the contraceptive prevalence and unmet need for family planning, the awareness about RTI/ STI and HIV /AIDS and the utilization of government health services. The second round of the DLHS was conducted by CSES in Kerala, U.T of Lakshadweep and the Mahe District of Pondicherry in two phases. The first phase was conducted in 2002 and the second phase in 2004. The two phases covered around 17600 households in Kerala, Lakshadweep and Mahe. The second round involved the administration of three more new questionnaires apart from the household and women’s questionnaires; namely, Husband’s questionnaire, Village questionnaire and Health questionnaire. The survey also involved anthropometric measurements of weights of children as well testing for anemia for women and adolescent girls. The second round also consisted of a Facility Survey, in which the available facilities in selected health facilities across the states were assessed. The facility survey was conducted in around 360 health facilities in the state, comprising of district hospitals, CHCs, FRUs, PHCs, sub centres, ISM&H hospitals and dispensaries. The third round of the DLHS was conducted in 2007-08. The survey covered a total of 14711 households in Kerala and another 1,350 in Lakshadweep. DLHS-3 was carried out using a set eight survey instruments. The data from the households were collected using household, ever married woman, unmarried woman and village questionnaires. Sub Centre, Primary Health Centre (PHC), Community Health Centre (CHC) and District Hospital (DH) questionnaires were used to conduct the facility survey. Separate Fact Sheets were prepared for each district of Kerala and the U.T. of Lakshadweep. Click here to download the full report
Baseline and Evaluation Studies of the Service Delivery ProjectThe Service Delivery Project (SDP), was a fast track project under the Modernising Government Programme (MGP) of the Government of Kerala, which aimed at improving the quality of services delivered by government institutions to the people of Kerala, particularly the poor. CSES was entrusted with conducting the Baseline study of the Project by the Government of Kerala in 2005. Towards the closure of the Project, the Government again entrusted CSES with conducting an Evaluation Study of the Project in 2008. The projects were funded out of the Technical Assistance Fund (TAF) provided by the Government of Netherlands to the MGP. Procurement Service Provider (PSP) which managed TAF selected CSES from among competitive bids submitted by international and national consulting organisations such as TNS MODE, ORG etc. The Baseline Study had two components: Citizen’s Survey and Institutional Survey. The Objectives of the Study was to: Establish a baseline data for services delivered by the institutions under the SDP Establish a basis or framework for which such surveys can be undertaken periodically Assess the perception of citizens on the service levels of select institutions Provide a framework or basis on which such citizen surveys can be carried out periodically The project covered 21 types of government institutions like Primary Health Centres, Community Health Centres, Taluk Hospitals, District Hospitals, Urban and Rural Local Self Governments, Anganwadis, Lower Primary Schools, Upper Primary Schools, High Schools, Higher Secondary Schools, Vocational Higher Secondary Schools, Collectorates, Taluk Offices, Village Offices, Police Stations, Sub-Registrar Offices, Taluk Supply Offices, Old Age Homes and other Welfare Institutions. Of the 2585 institutions under 22 different categories covered by SDP, 575 institutions were randomly selected for the Institutional Survey component. The Citizen Survey covered more than 7000 users of the services of these institutions. Apart from the service delivery aspects, the study also looked into the infrastructure facilities of these institutions. Twenty one standalone reports pertaining to each institution were produced under the project. The Evaluation Study of the SDP was conducted during the final stages of project implementation. It focused on the initiatives undertaken by the SDP institutions and the success and shortcomings of the project at the institutional level. The exercise involved an extensive review of the project documents, consultations with the Programme Support Executives, Survey among a sample of institutions and feedback survey from the citizens. Under the institutional survey component, service delivery from 185 institutions was studied. The sample size for the citizen survey was 1323.
Study on the Social Impact of the CSR Initiatives of KMMLThe study sponsored by the Kerala Metals and Minerals Ltd, Chavara, Kollam enlists the CSR initiatives undertaken by them and assesses their social impact on the community.
Baseline Study of the Awareness about the Whale SharkThis recent study by the Wild Life Foundation of India was conducted to assess the awareness among the fishing community and coastal areas about the whale shark, an endangered species.
Economic Growth of Kerala: A Disaggregated AnalysisThe study was conducted with budgetary support from the State Government during the 2017-18 financial year and was submitted to the Higher Education Department, Government of Kerala. The study traces the evolution of Kerala economy, its characteristics and the sectoral changes in state income and employment. It delves in detail about the agricultural, industrial and service sectors and explores the reasons for the growth or the lack of it in each sector. The study also examines some of the weaknesses of Kerala economy like unemployment, dependence on external markets, degradation of environment, over exploitation of natural resources and deteriorating fiscal position in the context of the emerging ‘second generation problems’, arising from the very success of Kerala in social development. Further, the study explores the potential of the state for faster economic growth to sustain its social development.
Study on the Impact of Barefoot Technicians’ Training Programme- KILAStudy on the impact of barefoot technicians’ training programme conducted by Kerala Institute of Local Administration (KILA). KILA provided training to educated persons from rural areas to function as Barefoot Technicians under the Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Scheme (MGNREGS). After successfully completing the three-month long training, these technicians work in selected Grama Panchayats and assist the technical team in the implementation of MGNREGS. The study employed the impact evaluation model propounded by Donald Kirkpatrick (2019).
A Village Level Study on Labour Market Outcomes in KeralaThis ongoing study is being conducted with financial support from the Government of Kerala. The study examines the employment and unemployment situation in a grama panchayat in Ernakulam district.The study envisages to provide insights into the levels of education among the rural population, kind of jobs done, their job preparedness, job aspirations, barriers to entry into employment, etc.
Sustainability Evaluavation Exercise-Jalanidhi Phase IIISustainability Evaluation Surveys of Rural Water Supply Schemes under Phase III of the Jalanidhi Project by the Kerala Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Agency (Jalanidhi), Government of Kerala. The survey covered 191 small drinking water supply schemes spread across Kerala. The sustainability of the schemes have been assessed on four major aspects- technical sustainability, institutional sustainability, financial sustainability and user satisfaction (2019).
Study on the Allocation, Release and Utilization of Funds under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in KeralaThe study, conducted with a view to identify measures to improve the effectiveness of the SSA funding mechanism in the state, examines the trend in allocation, release and utilisation of Central and state shares of the centrally sponsored scheme during the last ten years. The physical and financial achievements of interventions under SSA in a sample of schools are also examined as part of the study.
Global Youth Tobacco Survey-4 (GYTS-4)Fourth Round of Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS-4) in the State of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala and Lakshadweep (field agency). The school based survey is being carried out for the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) is the nodal agency for the study at the national level.
lncreasing Equitable Access to Livelihoods and Employment for Persons with Disabilities in lndiaStudy on the Economic Impact of Leonard Cheshire’s European Union funded Livelihoods Project titled: “lncreasing equitable access to livelihoods and employment for persons with disabilities in lndia”. The study examines the visible/invisible, intended and unintended (positive/ negative) changes and improvement in the lives of people with disabilities as an outcome of the economic empowerment programme. The covered the Livelihood Resource Centres in Tamil Nadu and Delhi.
Towards People Centric Service Delivery: Land Revenue, Survey & Land Records, Registration, Food & Civil Supplies and PoliceCSES supported the Fourth Administrative Reforms Commission, Kerala in the preparation of the fifth report of the Commission: “Towards People Centric Service Delivery” by selected Government Departments in the state. The first phase of the project covered the services delivered by the offices under the Departments of Land Revenue, Survey & Land Records, Registration, Food & Civil Supplies and Police. The study covered the services delivered by Village and Taluk Offices, Sub Registrar Offices, Taluk Supply Offices, Ration Shops and Police Stations and brought forth recommendations to make the services more citizen friendly. The report was released in March 2020.
Tribal Women Breaking the Barriers: Documentation of the Livelihood Improvement Programme under Tribal Micro Plan in AlappuzhaThis study documents the changes in the lives of women belonging to the Ullada community (prominent tribal group in Alappuzha district) through their participation in the Livelihood Improvement Programme implemented by the Kudumbashree Mission in Alappuzha legislative constituency, The scattered nature and the absence of forest rights faced by the Ullada community residing in Alappuzha district makes the study relevant as most of the interventions targeting tribal people are either hamlet (ooru) centric or forest rights related. The study observes that the livelihood component devised specifically for women of this community has made substantial improvements in their lives enabling them to break the double barriers of caste and gender. Click here to download the full report
Study on the Initiatives of the state government to protect the rights and welfare of persons with disabilitiesThe study explored different dimensions of the life of the persons with disabilities and their rights with a view to identify the issues in implementation of various initiatives and the rights which remain unaddressed despite the legal provisions including the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016. The study is conducted for the Directorate of Social Justice, Government of Kerala.
Study on Indebtedness of Rural Poor Households in KeralaCSES with the support of Government of Kerala has completed a study on “Household Indebtedness among Rural Poor in Kerala”, in 2019. The study has observed that a significant share of rural poor households is struggling to meet their debt repayment commitments, with the low and unpredictable income, and thus being pushed into over-indebtedness. The study further explored the availability and accessibility of various credit sources by the rural poor and enquired in detail into the role of microfinance (including Kduumbashree) in their lives. The study was primarily based on a household survey conducted among 540 rural households across Kerala and supplemented by focus group discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews and case studies.
How the Poor Manage their Finances: A Study of the Portfolio Choices for Poor Households in Ernakulam District, KeralaThe study was done for the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in 2013. This study of the portfolios of the poor is based on the data provided by 107 poor households in three rural localities and urban slums in Kochi city in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala. The study is primarily based on a financial diary kept by the households for one month and gives significant insight into how the poor manage their cash inflows and outflows as well as the use of various financial instruments. Additional information on the assets, liabilities, socio-economic and demographic background of the households were captured by administering a household questionnaire. Click here to download the full report
Baseline and Endline Studies of the Kerala Local Government Service Delivery Project
The Kerala Local Government Service Delivery Project (KLGSDP) aimed to strengthen the institutional capacity of the local government system in Kerala to deliver services and undertake basic administrative and governance functions more effectively in a sustainable manner. The Project was implemented in the State with the financial assistance of the World Bank. KLGSDP, Government of Kerala entrusted CSES with conducting the baseline study of the project during the initial phase of the implementation of the project. Towards the end of the project, CSES was again entrusted with the conduct of the endline study of the project. The Baseline study was undertaken to create a baseline database for the KLGSDP on the current perceptions and satisfaction of the citizens on local governance and service delivery aspects in the GPs and Municipalities in Kerala. The specific objectives of the study were: To assess the extent of access to different services by the households To assess the perceptions of the citizens about different services delivered by the LGs and about local governance iii. To gauge the level of satisfaction with local governance and service delivery To assess the extent of awareness and participation of citizens in Plan formulation and budgeting of LGs To understand whether the level of services vary across different categories of LGs. This Baseline study conducted in 2013 included a household survey among 3200 households selected through a multi-stage systematic sampling procedure, across 48 sample Grama Panchayats and 16 Municipalities and a community survey. The study assessed the perceptions of the citizens across services such as roads, streetlights, water, sanitation, government schools, hospitals and anganwadis and offices of Local Governments. The study also assessed the perceptions of the citizens about the responsiveness of the local governments towards the elderly, environment and the citizens’ participation in local governance. Click here to download the full report
The End Line study of KLGSDP was conducted in 2017. The study had a household survey component and a sample project assessment component. The household survey was conducted in 1618 sample households across 48 sample Grama Panchayats and 16 Municipalities all over Kerala to assess the citizens’ perceptions on service delivery. The study also assessed the execution of a sub-sample of 36 projects (24 in GPs and 12 in Municipalities) from the list of projects implemented in the selected LGs. The projects were assessed on aspects such as cost and time efficiency, affordability, sustainability, quality, etc. The adoption of social and environmental safeguards by the LGs as well as citizens’ participation was also examined. Click here to download the full report